Patient-focused cancer care is essential in providing personalized treatment plans and holistic care options for individuals battling cancer. It emphasizes the importance of tailoring care to meet the unique needs and preferences of each patient, ensuring that they receive individualized attention and support throughout their cancer journey. By prioritizing the physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being of patients, patient-focused cancer care aims to optimize treatment outcomes and enhance the overall quality of life for those affected by cancer.
- Patient-focused cancer care offers personalized treatment plans and holistic care options.
- It aims to address the unique needs and preferences of each patient.
- The focus is on optimizing treatment outcomes and improving quality of life.
- By prioritizing the whole person, patient-focused cancer care takes into account the physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being of patients.
- Research highlights the importance of patient-centered care in improving outcomes and experiences for cancer patients.
The Importance of Patient-Centered Oncology Care
Patient-centered oncology care plays a crucial role in offering compassionate support, comprehensive treatment options, and individualized care plans tailored to the unique needs of each cancer patient. This approach recognizes that cancer treatment is not a one-size-fits-all solution and acknowledges the importance of considering the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of patients.
Compassionate cancer support is a fundamental aspect of patient-centered care. It involves providing empathetic and understanding care to patients and their families throughout their cancer journey. By offering emotional support and addressing the fears and concerns of patients, healthcare providers can create a compassionate and healing environment.
Another key aspect of patient-centered care is the provision of comprehensive treatment options. This ensures that patients have access to a wide range of treatment modalities, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and precision medicine. By tailoring treatment plans to individual patients, healthcare providers can optimize outcomes and minimize side effects.
Individualized care plans are at the core of patient-centered oncology care. These plans are designed to meet the specific needs, preferences, and goals of each patient. They take into account factors such as the stage and type of cancer, the patient’s overall health, and their personal values and beliefs. By involving patients in decision-making and empowering them to take an active role in their treatment, patient-centered care fosters a sense of ownership and collaboration between patients and healthcare providers.
|Key Aspects of Patient-Centered Oncology Care|
|Compassionate cancer support|
|Comprehensive treatment options|
|Individualized care plans|
“Patient-centered oncology care recognizes that every patient is unique and requires a tailored approach to their cancer treatment. By focusing on compassion, comprehensiveness, and individualization, healthcare providers can ensure that patients receive the care they need and deserve.”
In conclusion, patient-centered oncology care is vital for delivering high-quality cancer treatment that addresses the holistic needs of patients. By prioritizing compassionate support, providing comprehensive treatment options, and developing individualized care plans, healthcare providers can improve experiences and outcomes for cancer patients. The table above summarizes the key aspects of patient-centered care, emphasizing its multifaceted approach to cancer treatment.
The Role of Integrative Cancer Doctors in Patient-Focused Care
Integrative cancer doctors, such as Dr. Francisco Contreras MD, are instrumental in providing patient-focused care by integrating conventional medical treatments with complementary therapies. These doctors recognize the importance of addressing not only the physical aspects of cancer but also the emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being of their patients.
By combining conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation, with complementary therapies like acupuncture, nutrition counseling, and mind-body practices, integrative cancer doctors create comprehensive treatment plans tailored to each patient’s unique needs. This holistic approach allows them to address the whole person, not just the disease.
One of the key benefits of integrative cancer care is the ability to provide personalized treatment options that take into account the individual preferences and goals of each patient. Integrative doctors work closely with their patients to understand their values and beliefs, and then collaboratively develop a treatment plan that aligns with their wishes.
Integrative cancer doctors also prioritize patient education and empowerment. They take the time to explain different treatment options, potential side effects, and the rationale behind their recommendations. This allows patients to make informed decisions about their care and actively participate in their healing process.
Table: Example Treatment Modalities Offered by Integrative Cancer Doctors
|Acupuncture||A practice that involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the body to promote healing and relieve symptoms.|
|Nutrition Counseling||Guidance on adopting a healthy diet that supports the body’s natural defenses and optimizes overall well-being.|
|Mind-Body Practices||Techniques such as meditation, yoga, and guided imagery that help reduce stress, improve mental clarity, and enhance the mind-body connection.|
|Herbal Supplements||Natural substances, derived from plants, that may have beneficial effects on the body’s immune system and overall health.|
“Integrative cancer doctors play a vital role in patient-focused care by offering a comprehensive and individualized approach to cancer treatment. Through the integration of conventional and complementary therapies, they empower patients to take an active role in their healing journey.” – Dr. Francisco Contreras MD
Understanding Holistic Cancer Treatment
Holistic cancer treatment takes a comprehensive approach by addressing the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of cancer patients through various therapies and practices. It recognizes that cancer affects the whole person, not just the tumor, and seeks to support overall well-being throughout the treatment journey.
One of the key components of holistic cancer treatment is the integration of complementary therapies alongside conventional medical treatments. These therapies may include acupuncture, massage, nutritional counseling, meditation, and mind-body practices. By incorporating these approaches, patients can experience a more holistic and personalized treatment plan tailored to their specific needs.
Research has shown that holistic cancer treatments can have a positive impact on patients’ quality of life. A study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology found that integrative oncology interventions, which encompass holistic practices, helped reduce symptoms such as fatigue, pain, and anxiety in cancer patients. Furthermore, patients reported increased satisfaction with their treatment experience and a greater sense of empowerment in managing their health.
The Role of Nutrition in Holistic Cancer Treatment
Proper nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the body during cancer treatment. A healthy diet can help boost the immune system, manage side effects of treatment, and improve overall well-being. Integrative cancer care facilities often provide nutritional counseling to help patients make informed choices about their diet and develop customized meal plans tailored to their specific needs. By focusing on nourishing the body with wholesome, nutrient-rich foods, patients can optimize their treatment outcomes and enhance their overall quality of life.
|Benefits of Holistic Cancer Treatment||Examples of Holistic Therapies|
“Holistic cancer treatment acknowledges the importance of addressing the physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of cancer care. By integrating complementary therapies with conventional treatments, patients can benefit from a more comprehensive and personalized approach that supports their overall well-being.”
In conclusion, holistic cancer treatment offers a multidimensional approach to care that recognizes the importance of meeting the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of cancer patients. By integrating complementary therapies, such as acupuncture, meditation, and nutritional counseling, patients can experience a more holistic and personalized treatment plan. The integration of these therapies not only helps manage treatment side effects but also enhances overall well-being and quality of life. It is important for cancer patients to discuss holistic treatment options with their healthcare providers to determine the best approach for their individual needs.
Discover Oasis of Hope: A Leading Facility for Patient-Focused Cancer Care
Oasis of Hope is a renowned facility that specializes in providing patient-focused cancer care, offering personalized treatment plans tailored to each individual’s needs. With a commitment to holistic and integrated care, the facility strives to provide comprehensive support for patients throughout their cancer journey.
At Oasis of Hope, the focus is on delivering patient-centered care that goes beyond addressing the physical aspects of cancer. The facility recognizes the importance of addressing emotional and spiritual well-being, offering a range of complementary therapies and support services. From acupuncture and nutrition counseling to mind-body practices and psychological support, Oasis of Hope aims to enhance overall well-being and quality of life for patients.
The approach at Oasis of Hope is rooted in collaboration and open communication. A multidisciplinary team of medical professionals, including integrative cancer doctors, works together to develop personalized treatment plans for each patient. These plans take into account the unique needs and preferences of individuals, ensuring that they receive the most effective and appropriate care.
Personalized Care at Oasis of Hope
One of the key aspects of patient-focused cancer care at Oasis of Hope is the emphasis on personalized treatment. Every patient is treated as an individual, with their own set of circumstances and requirements. By taking the time to understand each patient’s specific needs, the team at Oasis of Hope can create tailored treatment plans that address their unique situation.
|Conventional Cancer Treatments||Utilizing evidence-based approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy to target cancer cells and prevent their growth.|
|Complementary Therapies||Including acupuncture, herbal medicine, and nutritional therapy to support the body’s overall health and well-being.|
|Mind-Body Practices||Encouraging relaxation, stress reduction, and emotional healing through techniques such as meditation, yoga, and guided imagery.|
|Psychological Support Services||Providing counseling and therapy to address the emotional and psychological impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment.|
By combining various treatment modalities, Oasis of Hope aims to provide a comprehensive and integrated approach to cancer care. The focus is not only on treating the disease but also on supporting the patient as a whole, addressing their physical, emotional, and spiritual needs. This patient-focused approach sets Oasis of Hope apart as a leading facility in the field of cancer care.
Comprehensive Cancer Treatments at Oasis of Hope
Oasis of Hope offers a wide range of comprehensive cancer treatments, encompassing both traditional and complementary therapies, to provide patients with the best possible care. Their team of highly skilled and experienced oncologists, surgeons, and integrative medicine specialists work together to develop personalized treatment plans tailored to each patient’s unique needs and preferences.
At Oasis of Hope, patients have access to state-of-the-art medical technology and evidence-based treatment modalities, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies. These conventional treatments are complemented by a variety of holistic therapies aimed at addressing the physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of cancer care. From acupuncture and massage therapy to nutritional counseling and mind-body practices, Oasis of Hope offers a comprehensive approach to healing and well-being.
Additionally, Oasis of Hope recognizes the importance of supporting patients throughout their cancer journey. They provide compassionate care and support services to help patients manage symptoms, cope with the emotional challenges of cancer, and foster a sense of hope and empowerment. From support groups and counseling services to educational resources and survivorship programs, Oasis of Hope is committed to enhancing the overall quality of life for patients and their families.
|Chemotherapy||Utilizes medication to destroy cancer cells or slow their growth.|
|Radiation Therapy||Uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.|
|Targeted Therapy||Targets specific molecules or genes involved in cancer growth and progression.|
|Acupuncture||Stimulates specific points on the body to alleviate pain and promote overall well-being.|
|Massage Therapy||Relieves muscle tension, reduces stress, and improves circulation.|
|Nutritional Counseling||Provides guidance on adopting a healthy diet to support the body’s healing process.|
|Mind-Body Practices||Includes techniques such as meditation, yoga, and relaxation exercises to promote emotional well-being and reduce stress.|
“At Oasis of Hope, we believe in taking a comprehensive and integrative approach to cancer treatment. Our goal is to address not just the disease, but the whole person. By combining both conventional and complementary therapies, we can offer our patients the best possible care and support on their journey to recovery.”
If you or a loved one is seeking comprehensive cancer care that combines cutting-edge treatments with holistic support, contact Oasis of Hope today for a free consultation. Their team of dedicated professionals is ready to guide you through your options and provide personalized care that focuses on your well-being.
Contact Oasis of Hope for a Free Consultation
If you or a loved one is seeking patient-focused cancer care, consider scheduling a free consultation with Oasis of Hope to explore personalized treatment options. With our commitment to providing holistic and individualized care, we aim to enhance the quality of life and treatment outcomes for our patients.
At Oasis of Hope, we understand that each patient’s journey is unique, and we strive to develop personalized treatment plans that encompass the physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of cancer care. Our team of dedicated healthcare professionals, including integrative cancer doctors, combines conventional medical treatments with complementary therapies to create a comprehensive approach to cancer treatment. We believe in addressing the whole person, not just the disease, and our range of holistic cancer treatments, such as acupuncture, nutrition, and mind-body practices, supports this philosophy.
During the free consultation, our experienced team will take the time to listen to your concerns, answer your questions, and provide guidance on the treatment options available to you. We understand that navigating the healthcare system can be challenging, and we are here to guide you through the process. Together, we can create a personalized care plan that meets your specific needs and preferences.
|Benefits of a free consultation at Oasis of Hope:|
|– Personalized treatment options|
|– Comprehensive approach to cancer care|
|– Holistic therapies for overall well-being|
|– Guidance in navigating the healthcare system|
If you are ready to embark on a patient-focused cancer care journey, contact us today to schedule your free consultation with Oasis of Hope. Together, we can explore the best treatment options for you and provide the support you need throughout your cancer care experience.
The Impact of Patient-Centered Care Initiatives
Patient-centered care initiatives have shown promising potential in enhancing outcomes and experiences for cancer patients, although challenges in implementation and measurement persist. A study conducted in Montreal, Canada analyzed feedback from cancer patients using the Ambulatory Oncology Patient Satisfaction Survey, providing insightful data on the concerns and preferences expressed by patients. Access to and coordination of care were among the major issues reported, encompassing challenges with care structure, processes, and outcomes.
In another study evaluating the implementation of patient-centered oncology care standards in medical oncology practices in Pennsylvania, researchers found that while the implementation of these standards improved the overall quality of care, there were no significant differences in patient experiences or utilization of emergency department and hospital services compared to non-pilot practices. This suggests that while patient-centered care initiatives have the potential to enhance care delivery, effectively measuring and addressing their impact remains a challenge.
Insights from Patient Satisfaction Surveys
The insights derived from patient satisfaction surveys play a crucial role in understanding the priorities and concerns of cancer patients in relation to patient-centered oncology care. These surveys provide valuable feedback on the experiences of patients, highlighting areas for improvement and identifying the gaps in care delivery. The studies undertaken in Montreal and Pennsylvania shed light on the importance of factors such as access to timely appointments and services, as well as the need for enhanced coordination and navigation within the healthcare system.
|Ambulatory Oncology Patient Satisfaction Survey||Montreal, Canada||Access to and coordination of care are major concerns for cancer patients.|
|Pennsylvania Study||Pennsylvania, United States||Patient experiences and utilization of emergency department and hospital services did not significantly differ in practices implementing patient-centered care standards compared to non-pilot practices.|
These findings emphasize the need for healthcare providers and policymakers to address the challenges faced by patients in accessing patient-centered cancer care. By focusing on improving care structure, processes, and outcomes, healthcare stakeholders can work towards creating a more patient-centric approach to cancer care, ultimately enhancing the overall experience and outcomes for cancer patients.
Insights from Patient Satisfaction Surveys
Patient satisfaction surveys have provided valuable insights into the concerns and preferences of individuals receiving cancer treatment, underscoring the importance of patient-centered oncology care. One such study conducted in Montreal, Canada analyzed feedback from cancer patients using the Ambulatory Oncology Patient Satisfaction Survey. The study aimed to identify areas of improvement in the delivery of patient-centered care.
The survey findings revealed that access to and coordination of care were major concerns for patients. Many patients reported challenges in obtaining timely appointments and services, which negatively impacted their overall experience. Additionally, navigating the complex healthcare system was highlighted as a significant barrier. Patients expressed the need for streamlined processes and improved communication between healthcare providers to enhance their care experience.
Furthermore, the survey highlighted the importance of personalized care plans and communication with healthcare providers. Patients appreciated being involved in decision-making regarding their treatment options and felt more satisfied when their preferences were considered. The study emphasized the need for healthcare providers to prioritize patient preferences and actively engage patients in their treatment journey.
|Key Findings from Patient Satisfaction Surveys|
|Access to timely appointments and services is a major concern.|
|Patients face challenges in navigating the healthcare system.|
|Personalized care plans and communication with healthcare providers are essential for patient satisfaction.|
These survey findings shed light on the experiences and expectations of cancer patients, providing valuable insights for healthcare providers. By addressing these concerns and prioritizing patient-centered care, providers can improve the overall quality of cancer care delivery. Patient-centered oncology care goes beyond medical interventions and encompasses the entire patient journey, from diagnosis to survivorship.
Challenges in Accessing Patient-Centered Cancer Care
Accessing patient-centered cancer care can pose challenges for individuals, including issues with care structure, processes, and outcomes. A study conducted in Montreal, Canada analyzed feedback from cancer patients using the Ambulatory Oncology Patient Satisfaction Survey. The study revealed that patients often reported difficulties in obtaining timely appointments and services, as well as navigating the complex healthcare system.
Patient feedback highlighted concerns about coordination of care, with some patients expressing frustration with the lack of communication and collaboration among healthcare providers. These challenges in care structure can lead to fragmented and inefficient care, impacting the overall patient experience and potentially affecting treatment outcomes.
Care processes also play a significant role in accessing patient-centered cancer care. Patients reported long wait times for diagnostic tests, treatment appointments, and follow-up visits. In some cases, bureaucratic processes and administrative barriers contributed to delays in accessing necessary care. These challenges can cause additional stress and anxiety for patients already grappling with a cancer diagnosis.
Furthermore, issues with care outcomes were identified as a barrier to accessing patient-centered cancer care. Patients expressed concerns about the effectiveness of treatments and the availability of innovative therapies. Limited access to clinical trials and specialized treatment options deprived some patients of potentially life-saving interventions. These challenges in care outcomes highlight the need for improved access and greater equity in cancer care delivery.
Evaluating the Impact of Patient-Centered Care Standards.
The implementation of patient-centered care standards in medical oncology practices has shown improvements in the quality of care, although the impact on patient experiences and utilization of emergency department and hospital services remains uncertain. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these standards and understand their influence on patient outcomes and healthcare utilization.
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, researchers examined the impact of patient-centered care standards on the quality of care and utilization of emergency department and hospital services. The study involved both pilot and non-pilot practices, comparing the outcomes between the two groups. The results indicated that the implementation of patient-centered care standards led to improvements in the quality of care provided by medical oncology practices.
|Patient-Centered Care Standards Impact||Qualitative Findings|
|Quality of Care||The implementation of patient-centered care standards resulted in improved quality of care within medical oncology practices.|
|Patient Experiences||There were no significant differences in patient experiences between pilot and non-pilot practices.|
|Utilization of Emergency Department and Hospital Services||No significant differences were observed in the utilization of emergency department and hospital services between pilot and non-pilot practices.|
While the study highlighted the positive impact of patient-centered care standards on the quality of care, it did not demonstrate significant improvements in patient experiences or reductions in the utilization of emergency department and hospital services. These findings suggest that while patient-centered care standards contribute to enhancing the overall quality of care, their influence on patient experiences and healthcare resource utilization may be less pronounced.
Further research is needed to explore the factors that contribute to varying patient experiences and healthcare resource utilization in the context of patient-centered care. This research can help inform the development and implementation of more effective strategies to optimize both patient outcomes and resource utilization within medical oncology practices.
Patient-focused cancer care is vital in providing personalized treatment plans, comprehensive support, and holistic care options for individuals battling cancer, ultimately enhancing outcomes and experiences. This approach recognizes that each patient’s journey is unique, and tailors treatment plans to address their specific needs and preferences. By incorporating a range of therapies and interventions, such as complementary therapies, nutrition, and mind-body practices, patient-focused cancer care aims to support the overall well-being of individuals.
Studies have shown that patient-centered care initiatives have the potential to improve outcomes and experiences for cancer patients. However, challenges in implementing and measuring the impact of these initiatives persist. Ensuring timely access to care, addressing issues with care structure and coordination, and supporting patients in navigating the healthcare system are crucial steps to overcome these challenges.
A study conducted in Montreal, Canada highlighted patient concerns regarding access to and coordination of care, echoing the need for improved care structure and processes. Similarly, a study evaluating the implementation of patient-centered care standards in Pennsylvania found improvements in the quality of care but no significant differences in patient experiences or utilization of emergency department and hospital services. These findings emphasize the complexity of measuring the impact of patient-centered care and the importance of ongoing evaluation and refinement of care delivery models.
In conclusion, patient-focused cancer care, with its emphasis on individualized treatment plans and holistic support, plays a crucial role in the well-being of cancer patients. While challenges remain in implementing and measuring the impact of patient-centered care initiatives, ongoing efforts to improve access, care coordination, and patient experiences are essential for advancing the field of integrated cancer care and ensuring the best possible outcomes for patients.
Q: What is patient-focused cancer care?
A: Patient-focused cancer care is a healthcare approach that prioritizes personalized and holistic treatment options tailored to the individual needs and preferences of cancer patients.
Q: Why is patient-centered oncology care important?
A: Patient-centered oncology care is crucial in improving outcomes and experiences for cancer patients. It emphasizes compassionate support, comprehensive treatment approaches, and individualized care plans.
Q: What is the role of integrative cancer doctors in patient-focused care?
A: Integrative cancer doctors combine conventional medical treatments with complementary therapies to address the physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of cancer care.
Q: What is holistic cancer treatment?
A: Holistic cancer treatment focuses on addressing the whole person, not just the cancer itself. It incorporates various therapies such as acupuncture, nutrition, and mind-body practices to support overall well-being.
Q: What is Oasis of Hope?
A: Oasis of Hope is a leading facility that offers patient-focused cancer care. They are committed to providing personalized treatment plans and a range of holistic cancer treatments.
Q: What comprehensive cancer treatments are offered at Oasis of Hope?
A: Oasis of Hope offers a wide range of comprehensive cancer treatments, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and integrative therapies such as acupuncture and nutritional support.
Q: How can I schedule a free consultation at Oasis of Hope?
A: You can easily schedule a free consultation at Oasis of Hope by contacting their team. They will be able to guide you through the process and address any questions or concerns you may have.
Q: What is the impact of patient-centered care initiatives?
A: Patient-centered care initiatives have been shown to improve outcomes and experiences for individuals receiving cancer treatment. However, implementing and measuring the effectiveness of these initiatives can pose challenges.
Q: What insights do patient satisfaction surveys provide?
A: Patient satisfaction surveys provide valuable insights into the experiences and preferences of cancer patients. They help identify areas for improvement in care delivery and guide efforts to enhance patient-centered oncology care.
Q: What challenges are faced in accessing patient-centered cancer care?
A: Patients often face challenges in accessing patient-centered cancer care, including issues related to care structure, processes, and outcomes. These challenges highlight the need for improved access and coordination in healthcare systems.
Q: What is the impact of patient-centered care standards?
A: Patient-centered care standards, when implemented in medical oncology practices, can improve the quality of care. However, studies have shown no significant differences in patient experiences or utilization of emergency department and hospital services compared to non-pilot practices.
Q: What is the conclusion of this article?
A: The conclusion emphasizes the importance and benefits of patient-focused cancer care, highlighting the need for integrated care approaches that prioritize individualized treatment plans and holistic support.
Dr. Francisco Contreras, MD is a renowned integrative medical physician with over 20 years of dedicated experience in the field of integrative medicine. As the Medical Director of the Oasis of Hope Hospital in Tijuana, Mexico, he has pioneered innovative treatments and integrative approaches that have been recognized globally for the treatment of cancer, Lyme Disease, Mold Toxicity, and chronic disease using alternative treatment modalities. Dr. Contreras holds a medical degree from the Autonomous University of Mexico in Toluca, and speciality in surgical oncology from the University of Vienna in Austria.
Under his visionary leadership, the Oasis of Hope Hospital has emerged as a leading institution, renowned for its innovative treatments and patient-centric approach for treating cancer, Lyme Disease, Mold Toxicity, Long-Haul COVID, and chronic disease. The hospital, under Dr. Contreras's guidance, has successfully treated thousands of patients, many of whom traveled from different parts of the world, seeking the unique and compassionate care the institution offers.
Dr. Contreras has contributed to numerous research papers, articles, and medical journals, solidifying his expertise in the realm of integrative medicine. His commitment to patient care and evidence-based treatments has earned him a reputation for trustworthiness and excellence. Dr. Contreras is frequently invited to speak at international conferences and has been featured on CNN, WMAR2 News, KGUN9 News, Tyent USA, and various others for his groundbreaking work. His dedication to the medical community and his patients is unwavering, making him a leading authority in the field.
Contreras has authored and co-authored several books concerning integrative therapy, cancer, Lyme Disease and heart disease prevention and chronic illness, including "The Art Science of Undermining Cancer", "The Art & Science of Undermining Cancer: Strategies to Slow, Control, Reverse", "Look Younger, Live Longer: 10 Steps to Reverse Aging and Live a Vibrant Life", "The Coming Cancer Cure Your Guide to effective alternative, conventional and integrative therapies", "Hope Medicine & Healing", "Health in the 21st Century: Will Doctors Survive?", "Healthy Heart: An alternative guide to a healthy heart", “The Hope of Living Cancer Free”, “Hope Of Living Long And Well: 10 Steps to look younger, feel better, live longer” “Fighting Cancer 20 Different Ways”, "50 Critical Cancer Answers: Your Personal Battle Plan for Beating Cancer", "To Beat . . . Or Not to Beat?", and “Dismantling Cancer.”